Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, The Medieval World – Europe 1100–1350 by Friedrich Heer, 1998 Germany. Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, Genealogical tables of the House of Medici, Medici family tree § Medici family tree (Grand Dukes of Tuscany), "Cosimo de Medici e l'amore per le tartarughe con la vela", "Medici Family – – Encyclopædia Britannica", "Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400–1434", "Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici – Electress Palatine", Florence Journal; Where the Bodies Are Buried, Modern-Day Medici Feud, Alan Feuer, New York Times, May 4, 2004, "The Medici balls: Origins of the family's coat of arms", Prince Ottaviano de' Medici: Solving a 417-year-old murder mystery (May 4, 2004), Medici Family Tree, featuring portraits and bios of key members of the Medici Dynasty, 1400–1737, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_of_Medici&oldid=999589767, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, By Medico, Castellan of Potrone, considered the first ancestor of the house, Eldest son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. The House of Medici (Italian: [ˈmɛːditʃi] MED-ee-chee) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the Habsburg domains in the time period in question. Maria Maddelana's temperament was analogous to Christina's, and together they aligned Tuscany with the papacy, re-doubled the Tuscan clergy, and allowed the heresy trial of Galileo Galilei to occur. Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his support for the introduction of a proportional system of taxation. Only Great Britain and the Dutch Republic gave any credence to it, and the plan ultimately died with Cosimo III in 1723..  To strengthen the new Franco-Tuscan alliance, he married his niece, Marie, to Henry IV of France. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. Unlike his father, Piero had little interest in the arts. This has been suggested as a reason for the rise of the Medici family.. Despite his refusal of official approval, the pope nonetheless allowed the plot to proceed without interfering, and, after the failed assassination of Lorenzo, also gave dispensation for crimes done in the service of the church. "Cosimo de Medici e l'amore per le tartarughe con la vela". Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore did little to further the Medici control of Florence while in power. Despite the presence of some Medici in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than other outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi.  In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Duke of Florence. He was called "Piero the Gouty" because of the gout that pained his foot and led to his death. De’ Medici zijn oorspronkelijk afkomstig uit Mugello, een dal in de buurt van Florence.Een oude legende vertelt dat Karel de Grote bij zijn terugkeer uit Rome in het jaar 800 door dit dal reed, toen hij plotseling werd aangevallen door barbaren. Tenmidden ligt Golden Tulip Hotel De'Medici, op enkele minuten wandelafstand van de grote markt met het beroemde Belfort. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany after territorial expansion. The line of the Princes of Ottajano, an extant branch of the House of Medici who were eligible to inherit the grand duchy of Tuscany when the last male of the senior branch died in 1737, could have carried on as Medici sovereigns but for the intervention of Europe's major powers, which allocated the sovereignty of Florence elsewhere. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) and Pope Leo XI (1605)—and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1589) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1630). , Old coat of arms of the Medici used by Giovanni di Bicci and Cosimo the Elder, The intermediate coat of arms of the Medici, Or, six balls in orle gules, The "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. The restoration of the republic would entail resigning Siena to the Holy Roman Empire, but, regardless, it was vehemently endorsed by his government. Ferdinando, although no longer a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive conclaves. Their collective regency is known as the Turtici. It's here! The Medici family have claimed to have funded the invention of the piano and opera, financed the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica and Santa Maria del Fiore, and were patrons of Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Machiavelli, Galileo and Francesco Redi among many others in the arts and sciences. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries.  (see Medici family tree). , The "Lorrainers", as the occupying forces were called, were popularly loathed, but the regent, the Prince de Craon, allowed the electress to live unperturbed in the Palazzo Pitti. Ferdinando died in 1609, leaving an affluent realm; his inaction in international affairs, however, would have long-reaching consequences down the line.  Harold Acton, an Anglo-Italian historian, ascribed the decline of Tuscany to the Turtici regency. The Medicis' wealth and influence was initially derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence, the Arte della Lana. In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence. One unproven story traces their ancestry to a knight of Charlemagne's, Averardo, who defeated a giant, Mugello. However, these portions of his proclamation were completely ignored, and he died a few days later. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) was granted by Louis XI in 1465. With this intention I now go. Elected to the Papacy, becoming Pope Leo X.  In 1657, Leopoldo de' Medici, the Grand Duke's youngest brother, established the Accademia del Cimento, organized to attract scientists to Florence from all over Tuscany for mutual study. The most likely theories, however, are that the balls originally represent coins copied from the coat of arms of the Guild of Moneychangers (Arte del Cambio) to which the Medici belonged. Giovanni's son Cosimo the Elder, Pater Patriae (father of the country), took over in 1434 as gran maestro (the unofficial head of the Florentine Republic). Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Filippo Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. They were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. He married Maria Maddalena of Austria, with whom he had his eight children, including Margherita de' Medici, Ferdinando II de' Medici, and an Anna de' Medici. Hij was een zoon van Piero de' Medici, 'de Jichtige' en vader van Piero de' Medici; zijn moeder was Lucrezia Tornabuoni.  Ferdinando's pro-papal foreign policy, however, had drawbacks. the Medici – aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century 1. Ferdinando also sponsored a Tuscan expedition to the New World with the intention of establishing a Tuscan colony, an enterprise that brought no result for permanent colonial acquisitions. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his own right and an author of poetry and song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici patronage.  To augment the Tuscan silk industry, he oversaw the planting of mulberry trees along the major roads (silk worms feed on mulberry leaves).  On 25 October, 1731, a Spanish detachment occupied Florence on behalf of Don Carlos, who disembarked in Tuscany in December of the same year. Henry explicitly stated that he would defend Tuscany from Spanish aggression, but later reneged, after which Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain (where Maria Maddalena's sister Margaret was the incumbent Queen consort). Europe largely ignored Cosimo's plan. Leo X's fun-loving pontificate bankrupted Vatican coffers and accrued massive debts. The Medici ruled the Grand Duchy from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. In the dangerous circumstances in which our city is placed, the time for deliberation is past. The conspirators approached Sixtus IV in the hopes of gaining his approval, as he and the Medici had a long rivalry themselves, but the pope gave no official sanction to the plan. Wij kijken er alvast naar uit jullie te mogen verwelkomen. Brother of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Medici: Medici [the ~] noun. With Daniel Sharman, Alessandra Mastronardi, Synnove Karlsen, Sebastian De Souza.  The number of balls also varied with time, as shown below. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. Father of, Cousin of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, son of. Een man schoot hem te hulp en verdedigde de keizer heldhaftig met zijn schild. Created by Nicholas Meyer, Frank Spotnitz. What are synonyms for Medici? Geschiedenis en oprichting: In oktober 2017 is de Vereniging Medici van de Antillen, oftewel de Asosiashon Mediko di Antias (AMA) in het leven geroepen. As an Italian vocabulary word, "medici" means "medical doctors". Eldest son of Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.  Cosimo died of consumption (tuberculosis) in 1621. The name in Italian is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable /ˈmɛ .di.tʃi/ and not on the second vowel. Medici sono una delle più note famiglie d'Europa, protagonisti della storia italiana dal XV al XVIII secolo.Oltre ad aver retto le sorti della città di Firenze prima e della Toscana poi, dal 1434 fi [..] In 1736, following the War of the Polish Succession, Don Carlos was disbarred from Tuscany, and Francis III of Lorraine was made heir in his stead.  The origin of the name is uncertain. As I have had more honour and responsibility among you than any private citizen has had in our day, I am more bound than any other person to serve our country, even at the risk of my life. He died the same month, but his successor, Pope Paul V, was also pro-Medici. Medici - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. The table below shows the origins of the Medici: This extract shows the branch that gave rise to the celebrated branch of the Medici descending from Giovanni "di Bicci", who founded the Medici fortunes: This is the branch of Cosimo's brother, Lorenzo, called the "Popolano" Branch, which gave rise to the Grand-Dukes of Tuscany: The origin of the Medici coat of arms is not recorded. The Habsburgs were deposed in favor of the House of Bourbon-Parma in 1801 (themselves deposed in 1807), but were later restored at the Congress of Vienna. Ferdinando's marriage to Vittoria della Rovere produced two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro. ^ a b Hibbert, p. 60. In 1605, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected Pope Leo XI. The Medici controlled the Medici Bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence and elsewhere. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (c. 1360–1429), son of Averardo de' Medici (1320–1363), increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city of Florence. 2. fig. When Lorenzo died in 1492, however, his son Piero proved quite incapable of responding successfully to challenges caused by the French invasion of Italy in 1492, and within two years, he and his supporters were forced into exile and replaced with a republican government. Alum is essential as a mordant in the dyeing of certain cloths and was used extensively in Florence, where the main industry was textile manufacturing. Clement also convinced Charles V to name Alessandro as Duke of Florence.  On 25 October 1723, six days before his death, Grand Duke Cosimo disseminated a final proclamation commanding that Tuscany stay independent: Anna Maria Luisa would succeed uninhibited to Tuscany after Gian Gastone, and the grand duke reserved the right to choose his successor.  Eleanor of Toledo, a princess of Spain and wife of Cosimo I the Great, purchased the Pitti Palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo de' Medici de Oude (Florence, 27 september 1389 - Careggi (Florence), 1 augustus 1464) was een zoon van bankier Giovanni di Bicci en een telg uit het roemruchte geslacht de' Medici.Hij was de eerste van zijn familie die de facto over Florence zou heersen als Heer van Florence Piero was later responsible for the expulsion of the Medici from 1494 to 1512. Before the Medicis, the Turks were the only exporters of alum, so Europe was forced to buy from them until the discovery in Tolfa.  On 19 February 1743, she died, and the grand ducal line of the House of Medici died with her. Nephew of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, son of Piero the Unfortunate. , Tuscany participated in the Wars of Castro (the last time Medicean Tuscany proper was involved in a conflict) and inflicted a defeat on the forces of Pope Urban VIII in 1643. Despite his influence, his power was not absolute; Florence's legislative councils at times resisted his proposals throughout his life, and he was viewed as first among equals, … This led to the transfer of Medici blood, through Catherine's daughters, to the royal family of Spain through Elisabeth of Valois, and the House of Lorraine through Claude of Valois. She occupied herself with financing and overseeing the construction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, started in 1604 by Ferdinando I, at a cost to the state of 1,000 crowns per week.. From Leo's election as pope in 1513 to his death in 1521, Florence was overseen, in turn, by Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Giulio de' Medici, the latter of whom became Pope Clement VII. Their support was critical, since artists generally only began work on their projects after they had received commissions. The exile of the Medici lasted until 1512, after which the "senior" branch of the family — those descended from Cosimo the Elder — were able to rule until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. Medici (TV Series 2016–2019) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. As a consequence, the grand duchy expired and the territory became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:42. Florence remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during intervals after 1494 and 1527. From the time of Clement's election as pope in 1523 until the sack of Rome, Florence was governed by the young Ippolito de' Medici (future cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church), Alessandro de' Medici (future duke of Florence), and their guardians. Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici children and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power. Medicin betyder omtrent det samme som Lægekunst.Se alle synonymer nedenfor. ^ Luisa Greco (22 May 2015). Golden Tulip de' Medici biedt kamers met airconditioning, een zithoek en een flatscreen-tv. The conspiracy involved the Pazzi and Salviati families, both rival banking families seeking to end the influence of the Medici, as well as the priest presiding over the church services, the Archbishop of Pisa, and even Pope Sixtus IV to a degree. De motivatie voor het oprichten van de vereniging was tweeledig: The electress donated much of her fortune to charity: £4,000 a month. That shield was red strewn with Byzantine coins (bezants). 1 word related to Medici: house. Against the opposition of Catherine de' Medici, Paul III and their allies, he prevailed in various battles to conquer Florence's hated rival Siena and found the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Brother of Piero the Unfortunate, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Are You Learning English? Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici were notable rulers and patrons of the arts in Florence; the family also provided four popes (including Leo X ) and two queens of France (Catherine de' Medici and Marie de Médicis ). Medici is the plural of medico, meaning "medical doctor".  In foreign affairs, he shifted Tuscany away from Habsburg hegemony by marrying the first non-Habsburg marriage candidate since Alessandro, Christina of Lorraine, a granddaughter of Catherine de' Medici. Lorenzo I, bijgenaamd il Magnifico (Florence, 1 januari 1449 – Careggi, 8 april 1492) was een van de beroemdste leden van het geslacht de’ Medici, en heerste over de Florentijnse Republiek tijdens het hoogtepunt van de Italiaanse renaissance.. Levensloop. Doordat deze vloeren slechts subtiel verouderd zijn, krijgt de pietra dei medici natuursteen vloer een authentieke maar strak-moderne uitstraling. The family's influence grew with its patronage of wealth, art, and culture. , Coat of Arms of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, Coat of Arms of Catherine of Medici, as Queen of France, Coat of Arms of Maria of Medici, as Queen of France, Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737), "Medicis" redirects here.  The city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class.. Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities (February 7, 1497). Cousin of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, illegitimate son of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours. However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. The bed, often smelling of faeces, was occasionally cleaned by Violante.  Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici and Tuscan state property, are thought to have been wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty. After securing Alessandro de' Medici's dukedom, Pope Clement VII married off his first cousin, twice removed, Catherine de' Medici, to the son of Emperor Charles V's arch-enemy, King Francis I of France – the future King Henry II. The extinction of the main Medici dynasty and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. , Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492), called "the Magnificent", was more capable of leading and ruling a city, but he neglected the family banking business, which led to its ultimate ruin.  Lorenzo also served as patron to Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for seven years. In architecture, the Medici were responsible for some notable features of Florence, including the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel and the Palazzo Medici.. Medici family, Italian bourgeois family that ruled Florence and, later, Tuscany during most of the period from 1434 to 1737, except for two brief intervals. Here Are Our Top English Tips, The Best Articles To Improve Your English Language Usage, The Most Common English Language Questions.  Until the late 14th century, the leading family of Florence was the House of Albizzi.  At that time, the economy was so decrepit that barter trade became prevalent in rural market places. Medici: Medici; English. Cousin of Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino or Pope Clement VII. Acting, Distant cousin of Alessandro de' Medici, Son of. It provided the Roman Catholic Church with four popes (Leo X, Clement VII, Pius IV, and Leon XI) and married into the royal families of Europe. Ferdinando's successor, Cosimo II, reigned for less than 12 years. , Ferdinando died on 23 May 1670 afflicted by apoplexy and dropsy. He is most remembered as the patron of astronomer Galileo Galilei, whose 1610 treatise, Sidereus Nuncius, was dedicated to him.  Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his nominal feudal overlord, exorbitant dues, and he sent munitions to the emperor during the Battle of Vienna. They were generous patrons of the arts who commissioned masterpieces such as Raphael's Transfiguration and Michelangelo's The Last Judgment; however, their reigns coincided with troubles for the Vatican, including Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation and the infamous sack of Rome in 1527. At least half, probably more, of Florence's people were employed by the Medici and their foundational branches in business. Elke kamer beschikt tevens over een minibar en koffie- en theefaciliteiten. He was interred in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, the Medici's necropolis. Basat en el projecte OpenThesaurus-ca.  Following a sprained ankle in 1731, he remained confined to his bed for the rest of his life. Sinònims de «medi» en català.Diccionari de sinònims de català en línia. Spletna stran slovenskih sinonimov je projekt, ki stremi k izboljšanju uporabnikovega besednega zaklada. An exceedingly discontented pairing, this union produced three children, notably Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, and the last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici. In 1626, they banned any Tuscan subject from being educated outside the Grand Duchy, a law later overturned, but resurrected by Maria Maddalena's grandson, Cosimo III.  Marie de' Medici, widow of Henry IV of France and mother of Louis XIII, is the subject of a commissioned cycle of paintings known as the Marie de' Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg Palace by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–23.  Involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florentine politics for twenty years, with the exception of two. Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. In later years, the most significant protégé of the Medici family was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a number of family members, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was said to be extremely fond of the young Michelangelo and invited him to study the family collection of antique sculpture.  The dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank in Florence in 1397.  At the time of his death, the population of the grand duchy was 730,594; the streets were lined with grass and the buildings on the verge of collapse in Pisa.. The main challengers to the Albizzi family were the Medici, first under Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, later under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici and great-grandson, Lorenzo de' Medici. Cosimo (the "Elder" not to be confused with Cosimo I) and his father started the Medici foundations in banking and manufacturing – including a form of franchises. Cosimo purchased a portion of the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa and based the Tuscan navy there. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who erected the Uffizi Gallery in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno – ("Academy of the Arts of Drawing") in 1563. Like other families ruling in Italian signorie, the Medici dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence under their family's power, and created an environment in which art and humanism flourished. His conduct at the banquets was less than regal; he often vomited repeatedly into his napkin, belched, and regaled those present with socially inappropriate jokes. The first grand duke of the new dynasty, Francis I, was a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I de' Medici, thus he continued the Medicean Dynasty on the throne of Tuscany through the female line. Vi fandt 74 synonymer for medicin.Se nedenfor hvad medicin betyder og hvordan det bruges på dansk. Upon the death of his first son, Cosimo contemplated restoring the Florentine republic, either upon Anna Maria Luisa's death, or on his own, if he predeceased her. He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in southern Tuscany and cultivated trade in Livorno. Lorenzo's son Piero II took over as the head of Florence after Lorenzo's death. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored, although the names Galileo used are not the names currently used. In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence. Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. However, several extant branches of the House of Medici currently continue to exist, including the Princes of Ottajano, the Medici Tornaquinci, and the Verona Medici Counts of Caprara and Gavardo. In 1536, Alessandro de' Medici married Charles V's daughter, Margaret of Austria; however, the following year he was assassinated by a resentful cousin, Lorenzino de' Medici. Does English Have More Words Than Any Other Language? In 15th-century Renaissance Florence, the visionary Medici dynasty flexes its power in politics and the arts, risking its rivals' lethal opposition. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt of 1378–82, and one Antonio de' Medici was exiled from Florence in 1396. To ensure the continuance of his family's success, Lorenzo planned his children's future careers for them.  In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by Austrians. Gian Gastone despised the electress for engineering his catastrophic marriage to Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg; while she abhorred her brother's liberal policies, he repealed all of his father's anti-Semitic statutes. Following the assassination of Duke Alessandro, power passed to the "junior" Medici branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, the youngest son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I "the Great." He died in 1574, succeeded by his eldest surviving son Francesco, whose inability to produce male heirs led to the succession of his younger brother, Ferdinando, upon his death in 1587. , Three successive generations of the Medici — Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo — ruled over Florence through the greater part of the 15th century. The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region north of Florence, and they are first mentioned in a document of 1230. But in 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, and the city of Siena lost its status as the banking center of Italy to Florence. The Ruspanti, Gian Gastone's decrepit entourage, loathed the electress, and she them. It has also been argued that these coins referenced the three coins or golden balls associated with St. Nicholas, particularly as the saint was invoked by Italian bankers as they took oaths. In reward, Charlemagne is said to have rewarded Averardo with the shield mauled by the giant, with the dents in the shape of balls, and the giant's lands in Mugello. Op deze manier wordt de warmte en authenticiteit van een natuursteen vloer optimaal toegepast voor de inrichting van moderne villa's of landhuizen  The Grand Duke alone had the prerogative to exploit the state's mineral and salt resources, and the fortunes of the Medici were directly tied to the Tuscan economy.. , Cosimo's elder son, Ferdinando, was not yet of legal maturity to succeed him, thus Maria Maddalena and his grandmother, Christina of Lorraine, acted as regents. In comparison to the 17th century, the population of Florence declined by 50%, and the population of the grand duchy as a whole declined by an estimated 40%. Duchess Violante of Bavaria, Gian Gastone's sister-in-law, tried to withdraw the grand duke from the sphere of influence of the Ruspanti by organising banquets.
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